In mineralogy, diamond is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond knives and diamond anvil cells.
Because diamonds are so valuable, it’s essential to have a universal grading system for comparing their quality. The quality of diamond is basically depend on diamond 4C's. They are Cut, Color, Clarity and Carat weight.
The cut actually pertains to both the shape of the diamond and to the make. Shapes include round, marquise, princess, radiant, pear, oval, emerald, and heart, and a few rare shapes. The Make includes details such as table percentage, depth percentage, polish, and symmetry, among others.
Carat is a simple measurement of weight. There are five carats in a gram; each is broken into smaller units of measurements called points. The easiest way for you to think of points is the same way you think of percentages. 25 is a ¼ carat, 50 is a ½ carat, 75 is a ¾ carat and so on.
Clarity of Diamond:
Clarity is another of the diamond 4Cs. This refers to any flaws in the diamond. As you might expect, the fewer flaws found in a diamond, the greater its worth is. These flaws cannot be detected by the naked eye, but the knowledge that one owns a flawless or near flawless diamond can bring satisfaction to the owner. You can verify whether a diamond is flawless or not by examining it under a loupe, which is tool jewelers use.
Color of Diamond:
Color in Transparent Diamonds are graded on a scale by the GIA (Gemological Institute of America) from D (colorless) to Z (light yellow).
D, E, F colourless
G, H, I, J near colourless
K, L, M faint yellow or brown
N, O, P, Q, R very light yellow or brown
S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z light yellow or brown
Diamond (heera stone) is one of the Nine Planet stones representing the Venus Planet (known as "Shukra" or "shukr" in Hindi).
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